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York University uses Axon Patch-Clamp instruments to investigate the roles of pannexin channels in epilepsyCase study
Researchers gain new insights into immune response during pediatric respiratory infections using the ImageXpress Pico systemCase study
Bioneer use the ImageXpress Micro Confocal for high-throughput imaging of 3D disease modelsCase study
Cell Painting is a high-content, multiplexed image-based assay used for cytological profiling. In a Cell Painting assay, up to six fluorescent dyes are used to label different components of the cell including the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, Golgi apparatus, and RNA. The goal is to “paint” as much of the cell as possible to capture a representative image of the whole cell. Automated image analysis software is used to extract feature measurements from each cell. The number of unique measurements is usually in the range of 100 to 1000 per cell. These measurements typically include intensity, texture, shape, size as well as the proximity of an object to its neighboring structure, which provides an indication of the spatial relationship between organelles. Together, these measurements form the phenotypic profile.
Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) multi-cellular, microtissues derived from stem cells that are designed to closely mimic the complex structure and functionality of human organs like the lung, liver or brain. Organoids are multi-cellular and demonstrate a high order of self-assembly to allow for an even better representation of complex in vivo cell responses and interactions, as compared to traditional 2D cell cultures. There are three distinct definitions that differentiate an organoid: It's a 3D biological microtissue containing several types of cells Represents the complexity, organization and structure of a tissue And, resembles at least some aspect of a tissue’s functionality
Cancer involves changes which enable cells to grow and divide without respect to normal limits, to invade and destroy adjacent tissues, and ultimately to metastasize to distant sites in the body. Cancer researchers need tools that enable them to more easily study the complex and often poorly understood interactions between cancerous cells and their environment, and to identify points of therapeutic intervention. Learn about our high-content imaging systems and analysis software solution that facilitate cancer research using biologically relevant 3D cellular models like spheroids, organoids, and organ-on-a-chip systems that simulate the in vivo environment of a tumor or organ.
Supporting scientists researching COVID-19 cellular response and vaccine development
Learn more about how our technology and solutions can help support your research of COVID-19 cellular responses and vaccine development. Here we've addressed common applications in infectious disease research including ELISAs and cell line development to Viral Neutralization and Titer.
Vaccine development workflows vary depending upon the platform (e.g. inactivated virus vs. DNA vaccine) chosen, each having its own advantages.
Live cell imaging is the study of cellular structure and function in living cells via microscopy. It enables the visualization and quantitation of dynamic cellular processes in real time. The ability to study cellular and subcellular structure, function, and organization in living systems aids in the development of assays that are more biologically relevant and that can better predict the human response to new drug candidates. Live cell imaging encompasses a broad range of topics and biological applications—whether it is performing long-term kinetic assays or fluorescently labeling live cells.
Development of more complex, biologically relevant, and predictive cell-based assays for compound screening is a primary challenge in drug discovery. The integration of three-dimensional (3D) assay models is becoming more widespread to drive translational biology. Higher complexity cell models have gained popularity because they better mimic in vivo environments and responses to drug treatment. Specifically, 3D cell cultures offer the advantage of closely recapitulating aspects of human tissues including the architecture, cell organization, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and more physiologically-relevant diffusion characteristics. Utilization of 3D cellular assays adds value to research and screening campaigns, spanning the translational gap between 2D cell cultures and whole-animal models. By reproducing important parameters of the in vivo environment, 3D models can provide unique insight into the behavior of stem cells and developing tissues in vitro.
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a method used to quantitatively detect an antigen within a sample. An antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance, for example a flu virus or environmental contaminant, that causes the vertebrate immune system to mount a defensive response. The range of potential antigens is vast, so ELISAs are used in many areas of research and testing to detect and quantify antigens in a wide variety of sample types. Cell lysates, blood samples, food items, and more can be analyzed for specific substances of interest using ELISAs. There are four major types of ELISAs: direct, indirect, competitive and sandwich. Each type is described below with a diagram illustrating how the analytes and antibodies are bonded and used. Direct ELISA In a direct ELISA, the antigen is bound to the bottom of the microplate well, and then it is bound by an antibody that is specific to the antigen and also conjugated to an enzyme or other molecule that enables detection. Indirect ELISA In an indirect ELISA, the antigen is bound to the bottom of the microplate well, then an antibody specific to the antigen is added. A secondary antibody, conjugated to an enzyme or other detection molecule, is then bound to the first antibody. Competitive ELISA In a competitive ELISA, a reference antigen is bound to the bottom of microplate wells. Sample plus antibody are added to the wells, and if there is antigen present in the sample, it competes with reference antigen for binding to the antibody. Unbound material is washed away. The more antigen was in the sample, the less antibody ends up bound to the bottom of the wells by the reference antigen, and the lower the signal. Sandwich ELISA For the sandwich ELISA, two antibodies specific to two different epitopes on the target antigen are used. The capture antibody is bound to the bottom of the microplate well and binds one epitope of the antigen. The detection antibody binds to the antigen at a different epitope and is conjugated to an enzyme that enables detection. (If the detection antibody is unconjugated, then a secondary enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is required).
Neurite outgrowth is assessed by the segmentation and quantification of neuronal processes. These neuronal processes can be imaged using a fluorescence microscope and quantified with manual tracing and counting when throughput is low. However, for samples in a higher-throughput microplate format, an automated imaging system paired with analysis software is a more efficient solution. Molecular Devices offers different options for automated imagers so that labs can select a system that best fits their research. Read on to see how CellReporterXpress software can be used to more efficiently acquire and analyze neuronal cell data.
Stem cells provide researchers with new opportunities to study targets and pathways that are more relevant to disease processes. They offer a more realistic model to identify and confirm new drug targets and generate pharmacology and toxicology data earlier, with stronger translation to the clinical setting. Additionally, the application of stem cells in drug development creates a new path to personalized medicine, while at the same time reducing, or even potentially replacing, animal testing. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) cells enable researchers to study primary cells without the limitations traditionally encountered in obtaining such cells.
The ability to accurately quantitate cell number in multi-well microplates enables a multitude of biological applications that study cell health or proliferation. These applications may make use of endpoint assays for imaging fluorescently-stained nuclei, or may demand robust transmitted light imaging of unstained live or fixed cells. In both cases, the enumeration of the cells through software segmentation should be fast and reliable. Here, we discuss the various methods and techniques used to assess proliferation, cytotoxicity, and confluence using cell counting, which can be quickly accomplished with either brightfield or fluorescent imaging using an automated imaging system and analysis software.
The Patch-clamp technique is a versatile electrophysiological tool for understanding ion channel behavior. Every cell expresses ion channels, but the most common cells to study with patch-clamp techniques include neurons, muscle fibers, cardiomyocytes, and oocytes overexpressing single ion channels. To evaluate single ion channel conductance, a microelectrode forms a high resistance seal with the cellular membrane, and a patch of cell membrane containing the ion channel of interest is removed. Alternatively, while the microelectrode is sealed to the cell membrane, this small patch can be ruptured giving the electrode electrical access to the whole cell. Voltage is then applied, forming a voltage clamp, and membrane current is measured. Current clamp can also be used to measure changes in membrane voltage called membrane potential. Voltage or current change within cell membranes can be altered by applying compounds to block or open channels. These techniques enable researchers to understand how ion channels behave both in normal and disease states and how different drugs, ions, or other analytes can modify these conditions.
Stable cell lines are widely used in a number of important applications including biologics (e.g. recombinant protein and monoclonal antibody) production, drug screening, and gene functional studies. The process of developing stable cell lines often starts with transfecting selected host cells, typically CHO or HEK 293 cells, with desired plasmids. After transfection, researchers then screen and quantify high-expressing clones. Once these high producers are identified, the cell lines and/or the proteins produced by the cells are validated. The manual screening methods traditionally used for cell line development are time-consuming and labor-intensive, creating a great demand for high throughput, automated solutions for such efforts. The general workflow below helps identify the systems that can aid in your research.
Researchers have several options in methods for imaging cells, from phase-contrast microscopy that shows intact cells to fluorescent imaging of single molecules or organelles. Cellular analysis is performed to evaluate and measure the current state of cells, such as cell integrity, toxicity, and viability and various other research applications. An integral part of cellular analysis is data collection, analysis, and export into a meaningful and useful format.