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Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs)

Monoclonal antibody (mAb) discovery

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) originate from one unique parent cell, thus binding only to a single epitope. Monoclonal antibody discovery typically refers to the screening and identification of specific antibodies that target a specific epitope for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, like the coronavirus for COVID-19.

There are several approaches to generating therapeutic mAbs. Two of the most common production methods are hybridomas and phage display.

How are monoclonal antibodies produced?

The traditional monoclonal antibody (mAb) production process usually starts with generation of mAb-producing cells (i.e. hybridomas) by fusing myeloma cells with desired antibody-producing splenocytes (e.g. B cells). These B cells are typically sourced from animals, usually mice. After cell fusion, large numbers of clones are screened and selected on the basis of antigen specificity and immunoglobulin class. Once candidate hybridoma cell lines are identified, each "hit" is confirmed, validated, and characterized using a variety of downstream functional assays. Upon completion, the clones are scaled-up where additional downstream bioprocesses occur.


monoclonal antibodies

Additional resources for antibody discovery


Accelerate your monoclonal antibody discovery with our product portfolio specifically designed to shorten cell line development time and deliver stable clones with higher affinities and expression levels.

  • Cell line Development

    Cell Line development

    Cell line development is a critical step in the process of generating biopharmaceutical molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies. The process often begins with transfecting the host cell type with the DNA encoding the therapeutic protein of interest allowing for random or directed integration of target DNA into the host cell genome. Thousands of clones are screened to isolate the rare high producing cells, a manual and time-consuming process.

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    Comparison of traditional cloning methods vs. f.sight

    Comparison of traditional cloning methods vs. f.sight

    In this study, we conducted six sets of experiments, cloning two CHO cell lines with animal-component-free (ACF) cell culture media and supplements, and compared the performance a CloneSelect™ f.sight single cell printer versus two other accepted cloning methods (FC and LD).

    View our introductory video and download application note.

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  • Confident identification of monoclonal CHO-S cells

    Confident Identification of Monoclonal CHO-S Cells

    Growing CHO cells in CloneMedia CHO Growth A is a more efficient way to clone CHO cells than performing limiting dilution in liquid media. Semi-solid media immobilizes the cells which prevents the cells from moving during routine handling. This enables researchers to confidently track the growth of a single cell into a colony.

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    eBook: Optimize your high value cell lines

    Optimize your high value cell lines

    In this eBook, we present an overview of the cell line development workflow as well as high throughput solutions for accelerating the process, and enabling easier and faster selection of high-producing mammalian cell lines.

    Download eBook  

  • Enhanced development of virus-specific hybridomas

    Enhanced development of virus-specific hybridomas

    Double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) viruses cause a variety of disease in humans. Species within the order of Herpesvirus and the families Adenovirus and Papillomavirus can cause symptoms in humans with similar presentations. Furthermore, serological and protein-based diagnostic confirmation for a particular virus may be complicated due to antigen conservation within viral genomes. A high degree of proteomic homology and serum cross reactivities lead to poor differentiation between individual species of ds-DNA viruses. The purpose of the research was to identify an optimal producer cell line that secrets a highly specific, non-cross-reactive monoclonal antibody to be used in biotherapeutics development.

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    Hybridoma selection using HAT medium

    Hybridoma selection using HAT medium

    Hybridoma selection after fusion of myelomas and spleen cells is a critical step in monoclonal antibody production. Often scientists use the HAT (hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine) method to accomplish this task.

    Watch HAT video 

  • Hybridoma technology

    Hybridoma technology

    Hybridoma technology is a method for mass-producing antibodies in a hybrid cell line generated from the fusion of antibody-producing B-cells with an immortalized myeloma cell line, now called a hybridoma cell. Because every B-cell produces a unique antibody, single-cell cloning of hybridomas can be used to generate a diverse library of unique monoclonal antibodies at a large scale, which are very frequently used in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.

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    Monoclonality assurance

    Cell line development and assurance of monoclonality are critical steps in the process of generating biopharmaceutical molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies. A cell line can be established following the isolation of a single viable cell robustly expressing the protein of interest. A key milestone in this process is documenting evidence of clonality. Documentation of clonality is typically image-based, whereby an image of a single cell is produced and included in regulatory filings.

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  • Phage display

    Phage Display

    Phage display is a technique used to study the interaction of proteins displayed on the surface of a bacteriophage with other molecules such as peptides, DNA, and other proteins. Phage display is commonly used to find high-affinity interactions between antibodies and antigens, which play a critical role in viral pathogenesis, vaccines, and other treatments.

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    Preparing and plating cells in semi-solid medium

    Plating Cells in Semi-Solid Medium

    Plating cells in the viscous semi-solid medium may be challenging to first-time users. Watch our 4-minute tutorial to learn some tips and tricks on how to plate cells in this medium more efficiently.

    Watch tutorial video  

Latest Resources

Resources of Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs)

Videos & Webinars

Tips to automating molecular cloning and strain engineering applications

Monoclonality Workflow

Monoclonality Workflow

Immunology and Vaccine Development Workflow

Immunology and Vaccine Development Workflow

Hybridoma Workflow

Hybridoma Workflow

Phage display workflow

Phage Display Workflow Overview

Hybridoma Selection using HAT Medium

Hybridoma selection using HAT medium

Preparing and Plating Cells in Semi Solid Medium

Preparing and Plating Cells in Semi-Solid Medium