Capture large 3D organoid and spheroid images with up to double the speed

 

The ImageXpress® Confocal HT.ai High-Content Imaging System utilizes a seven-channel laser light source with eight imaging channels to enable highly multiplexed assays while maintaining high throughput by using shortened exposure times. Water immersion objectives improve image resolution and minimize aberrations so scientists can see deeper into thick samples. 

The powerful combination of MetaXpress® software and IN Carta® software simplifies workflows for advanced phenotypic classification and 3D image analysis with machine learning capabilities and an intuitive user interface.

  • Enable Greater Icon

    Enable greater assay flexibility

    Eight imaging channels with laser excitation enable more assay flexibility, higher image brightness, and flexibility to use targeted imaging such as QuickID. Automated Water Immersion objectives offer greater numerical aperture and matched refractive index between the sample and the immersion media for enhanced resolution and decreased aberrations.

  • Increase throughput  Icon

    Increase throughput with higher quality images

    Higher excitation power provides increased signal, shorter exposure times, and faster acquisitions of 3D samples. Micro-lens enhanced spinning disk confocal provides a flat field of view for more accurate and reproducible image analysis. Shorter exposure times generates up to a two-fold boost in scan speed. FRET experiments using lasers for CFP and YFP expand research.

  • Accelerate Analysis Icon

    Accelerate analysis speeds

    IN Carta Image Analysis Software performs complex segmentation and classification. Phenoglyphs provides a robust trainable classification, and SINAP provides trainable segmentation for any image type. Accelerate analysis speeds by 40X with multi-threaded, parallel processing with MetaXpress® PowerCore Software. Reduces time from hours to minutes, eliminating 3D analysis as a bottleneck.

Organoid Innovation Center and ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai introduction

Introduction to the Organoid Innovation Center and ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai system

Features

  • High-intensity Laser Light Icon

    High-intensity laser light source

    Capture images faster with shorter exposure times. Multiplex your experiments with 7 lasers and 8 imaging channels.

  • Measure Icon

    Accurate 3D measurements

    Custom Module Editor 3D analysis is optimized for confocal imaging, enabling 3D measurements of volume and distance.

  • Accuracy Icon

    Wide field of view

    Wide field of view enables whole-well confocal imaging and eliminates missed targets. Next-generation dual microlens enhanced spinning disk technology provides a large, flat field of view for more accurate and reproducible analysis.

  • Optics Icon

    Exclusive AgileOptix™ spinning disk technology

    Provides increased sensitivity with specially designed optics, high-powered laser illumination, and sCMOS sensor. Swappable disk geometries provide flexibility between speed and resolution.

  • In Carta Icon

    IN Carta Image Analysis Software

    Leverages machine learning to improve the accuracy and robustness of high-content image analysis, delivering data insights that other technologies miss. Reduces the complexity of image analysis with intuitive guided workflows in a modern user interface.

  • Expandable Icon

    Multiple imaging modes

    The system offers phase contrast and brightfield label-free imaging, widefield and confocal fluorescent imaging with water immersion optics as a standard option.

  • Automated Water Immersion Objective Icon

    Automated water immersion objective technology

    Offers greater image resolution and sensitivity with up to 4x increase in signal leading to lower exposure times.

  • Breadth Icon

    Wide dynamic range

    Quantifies low and high intensity signals in a single image with >3 log dynamic range intensity detection.
     

 

 

 

 

Images taken with same exposure times show different average intensities

Learn more

 

 

 

 

 

IN Carta image analysis software

Powerful analytics combined with an intuitive user interface simplify workflows for image analysis and phenotypic profiling. Advanced features provide the functionality you need to analyze data in 2D, 3D, and 4D - at scale - and deliver real-time insights without the need for complex pre- or post- processing operations. Improve specificity of your image analysis workflows by utilizing the SINAP deep-learning module and see for yourself that Segmentation Is Not A Problem. Put machine learning to work for you and perform complex phenotypic analysis within a user-friendly Phenoglyphs module.

Learn more about IN Carta

IN Carta image analysis software

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cellular Image Gallery

HT.ai Organoid with Black Hole
 overlay z-steps
 Cell Painting
image62
Confocal HT.ai Organoid Encoded
 
Data and images were acquired during development using customer samples. Results may vary. Highlighted features’ price, time to deliver, and specifications will vary based on mutually agreed technical requirements. Solution requirements may cause adjustment to standard performance.

 

 

Latest Resources

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Applications of ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai system

  • 3D Cell Imaging and Analysis

    3D Cell Imaging and Analysis

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell models are physiologically relevant and more closely represent tissue microenvironments, cell-to-cell interactions, and biological processes that occur in vivo. Now you can generate more predictive data by incorporating technologies like the ImageXpress system with the integrated 3D Analysis Module in MetaXpress® software. This single interface will enable you to meet 3D acquisition and analysis challenges without compromise to throughput or data quality, giving you confidence in your discoveries.

    Learn More 

    Cancer Research

    Cancer Research

    Cancer researchers need tools that enable them to more easily study the complex and often poorly understood interactions between cancerous cells and their environment, and to identify points of therapeutic intervention. Learn about instrumentation and software that facilitate cancer research using, in many cases, biologically relevant 3D cellular models like spheroids, organoids, and organ-on-a-chip systems that simulate the in vivo environment of a tumor or organ.

    Learn More  

  • Cell Painting

    Cell Painting

    Cell Painting is a high-content, multiplexed image-based assay used for cytological profiling. In a Cell Painting assay, up to six fluorescent dyes are used to label different components of the cell including the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, the Golgi apparatus, and RNA. The goal is to “paint” as much of the cell as possible to capture a representative image of the whole cell.

    Learn More 

    Cells in Extracellular Matrices

    3d-hydrogels

    One common way of culturing cells in three dimensional space is through the use of extracellular matrix-based hydrogels, such as Matrigel. Cells are grown in an extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic an in vivo environment. Differences between Matrigel and 2D cell cultures can be readily seen by their different cell morphologies, cell polarity, and/or gene expression. Hydrogels can also enable studies on cell migration and 3D structure formation, such as endothelial cell tube formation in angiogenesis studies.

  • COVID-19 and Infectious Disease Research

    COVID-19 and Infectious Disease Research

    Here we've addressed common applications in infectious disease research including cell line development, binding affinity, viral neutralization, viral titer and more with a focused effort on understanding the SARS-CoV-2 virus in order to develop potential therapies for COVID-19 including vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics.

    Learn More 

    Live Cell Imaging

    Live Cell Imaging

    Live cell imaging is the study of cellular structure and function in living cells via microscopy. It enables the visualization and quantitation of dynamic cellular processes in real time. Live cell imaging encompasses a broad range of topics and biological applications—whether it is performing long-term kinetic assays or fluorescently labeling live cells.

    Learn More  

  • Neurite Outgrowth / Neurite Tracing

    Neurite Outgrowth

    Neurons create connections via extensions of their cellular body called processes. This biological phenomenon is referred to as neurite outgrowth. Understanding the signaling mechanisms driving neurite outgrowth provides valuable insight into neurotoxic responses, compound screening, and for interpreting factors influencing neural regeneration. Using the ImageXpress Micro system in combination with MetaXpress Image Analysis Software automated neurite outgrowth imaging and analysis is possible for slide or microplate-based cellular assays.

    Learn More  

    Organoid technology / Organ-on-a-Chip

    Organ on a Chip Assays

    Organoid technology, like organ-on-a-chip emulates organ physiology though co-culture of cells in a supportive 3D matrix and use of microfluidic channels to perfuse nutrients or compounds over the resulting cellular structures. It is rapidly gaining popularity as a biologically relevant screening model for new drugs and toxicity.

  • Organoids

    Organoids

    Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) multi-cellular microtissues that are designed to closely mimic the complex structure and functionality of human organs. Organoids typically consist of a co-culture of cells which demonstrate a high order of self-assembly to allow for an even better representation of complex in vivo cell responses and interactions, as compared to traditional 2D cell cultures.

    Learn More 

    Spheroids

    Spheroids

    Spheroids are multi-cellular 3D structures that mimic in vivo cell responses and interactions. They can be highly reproducible and to be scaled for high-content screening. Compared with adherent cells grown in 2D monolayers, 3D growth conditions are believed to more closely reflect the natural environment of cancer cells. Acquiring measurements from these larger structures involve acquiring images from different depths (z-planes) within the body of the spheroid and analyzing them in 3D, or collapsing the images into a single 2D stack before analysis.

    Learn More 

  • Stem Cell Research

    Stem Cell Research

    Pluripotent stem cells can be used for studies in developmental biology or differentiated as a source for organ-specific cells and used for live or fixed cell-based assays on slides or in multi-well plates. The ImageXpress system has utility in all parts of the stem cell researcher’s workflow, from tracking differentiation, to quality control, to measuring functionality of specific cell types.

    Learn more 

    Toxicology

    Toxicology

    Toxicology is the study of adverse effects of natural or man-made chemicals on living organism. It is a growing concern in our world today as we are exposed to more and more chemicals, both in our environment and in the products we use.

    Read More 

Specifications & Options of ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai system

Resources of ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai system

Presentations
Videos & Webinars
3D Imaging Seminar Series

3D Imaging Seminar Series

Intestinal organoids for automated screening assays

Intestinal organoids for automated screening assays

Organoid Culture and Image-Based Analyses

New standard in organoid culture and image-based analyses

The BAB400 integrated with the ImageXpress® Confocal HT.ai High-Content Imaging System

The BAB400 integrated with the ImageXpress® Confocal HT.ai High-Content Imaging System

3D Biology high-throughput workflows

Automate your 3D biology high-throughput workflows

How 3D biology is shaping the future of drug discovery

How 3D biology is shaping the future of drug discovery

Automation of the organ-on-a-chip assay: automated culture, imaging and analysis of angiogenesis

Automation of the organ-on-a-chip assay: automated culture, imaging and analysis of angiogenesis

Challenges for drug screening of complex biological systems

Challenges for drug screening of complex biological systems

3D Tissue Models Imaging and Automation of Organ-On-A-Chip

3D Tissue Models Imaging and Automation of Organ-On-A-Chip

Introduction to the Organoid Innovation Center and ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai system

Introduction to the Organoid Innovation Center and ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai system

Level Up your 3D Cell Culture

Level Up your 3D Cell Culture: From Research to High-Throughput

Enhance high-content 3D biology

Enhance high-content 3D biology imaging with automated sample preparation

Enhancing 3D Disease Models

Enhancing 3D Disease Models: Automated, High-Throughput, Phenotypic Screening with Organ-on-a-Chip

High-Content Phenotypic Screening

High-Content Phenotypic Screening

Emerging Organoid Models

Emerging Organoid Models: Translating Basic Research to Drug Development and Regenerative Medicine

ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai Overview

ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai Overview

Application and Analysis of Organoid Systems

Application and Analysis of Organoid Systems

Automating culture and high-content imaging

Automating culture and high-content imaging of 3D organoids for in vitro assessment of compound effects

Getting Started with 3D Human Tissue Models and Imaging

Getting Started with 3D Human Tissue Models and Imaging

Complexity of Cell Biology

Capturing the Complexity of Cell Biology

Automated Culture Monitoring and Analysis of Complex Biological Systems

ISSCR 2021 Innovation Showcase: Automated culture monitoring, imaging, and analysis of complex biological systems

Deep Learning-Based Image Analysis

Deep Learning-Based Image Analysis for Label-Free Live Monitoring of iPSC and 3D Organoid Cultures

Monitoring organoid development in iPSC-derived 3D cerebral

Monitoring organoid development in iPSC-derived 3D cerebral organoids

Automated Culture and High-Content Imaging of 3D Lung

ISSCR 2021 Innovation Showcase: Automated Culture and High-Content Imaging of 3D Lung and Cardiac

3D ECM for in vitrooncology research

A physiologically-relevant 3D ECM for 𝘪𝘯 𝘷𝘪𝘵𝘳𝘰 oncology research and intelligent high-content imaging of 3D models

Organoid Innovation Center Walkthrough

Organoid Innovation Center Walkthrough

Capturing the complexity of 3D biology

Capturing the complexity of 3D biology: Organoids for disease modelling and toxicity research

Imaging and Analysis of a 3D Airway Organoid Model

Imaging and Analysis of a 3D Airway Organoid Model

ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai / IN Carta Image Analysis Software Introduction

ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai / IN Carta Image Analysis Software Introduction

Spheroid Z-stack

Spheroid Z-stack

Spheroid 3D render

Spheroid 3D render

Spheroid 20X WI Deep Tissue 250 μm-Nuclei Mask-3D recon

Spheroid 20X WI Deep Tissue 250 μm-Nuclei Mask-3D recon

Immunology and Vaccine Development Workflow

Immunology and Vaccine Development Workflow

Hybridoma Workflow

Hybridoma Workflow

Disease modeling in the 21st century

Disease modeling in the 21st century: Automated organoid assays with 3D imaging

High-throughput, organoid-derived organ-on-a-chip systems for drug discovery and disease modelling

High-throughput, organoid-derived organ-on-a-chip systems for drug discovery and disease modelling

Unleash the power of Cell Painting

Unleash the power of Cell Painting

3D cell culture, tissue clearing, & high-content imaging

3D cell culture, tissue clearing, & high-content imaging in the quest of effective solutions to NAFLD

Transitioning high-content assays to 3D

Transitioning high-content assays to 3D: Scientific opportunities and imaging challenges

Water Immersion Objectives & High-Content Imaging

Gain deeper insights into cellular 3D structures with water immersion objectives

An AI-based approach to high-content phenotypic characterization of human iPSC-derived neuronal cells

An AI-based approach to high-content phenotypic characterization of human iPSC-derived neuronal cells

Implementing 3D Neural Spheroids

Implementing 3D Neural Spheroids in Drug Discovery

Accelerate your Screening with Automated Imaging

Accelerate your screening with high-content and automated imaging

Microplate based Detection

Accelerating study of viral infection and therapeutics with microplate-based detection and high-throughput screening

ImageXpress Micro Confocal Virtual Tour

ImageXpress Micro Confocal Virtual Tour

Magnetic 3D

Magnetic 3D Bioprinting, 3D Cell Culture in a 2D Workflow

LabTube Meets Molecular Devices & MIMETAS, Susan Murphy & Sebastiaan Trietsch

LabTube Meets Molecular Devices & MIMETAS, Susan Murphy & Sebastiaan Trietsch

Plate annotation and curve fitting in MetaXpress

Plate annotation and curve fitting in MetaXpress

Quickstart Guide: Plate acquisition on the ImageXpress Micro Confocal using MetaXpress

Quickstart Guide: Plate acquisition on the ImageXpress Micro Confocal using MetaXpress

Quickstart Guide: Review images on the ImageXpress Micro Confocal using MetaXpress

Quickstart Guide: Review images on the ImageXpress Micro Confocal using MetaXpress

Basic workflow from image acquisition to analysis on the ImageXpress Micro Confocal using MetaXpress

Basic workflow from image acquisition to analysis on the ImageXpress Micro Confocal using MetaXpress

Developing High Throughput Organ on a Chip Tissue

Developing high-throughput organ-on-a-chip tissue models for drug discovery using high-content imaging

Toxicity studies of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and neuronal spheroids

Toxicity studies of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and neuronal spheroids

3D in Vitro Models

Optimizing high-content screening tools for physiologically-relevant 3D in vitro models

Morphological Characterization of 3D Neuronal Networks in a Microfluidic Platform

Morphological Characterization of 3D Neuronal Networks in a Microfluidic Platform

3D Imaging of Cancer Spheroids

3D Imaging of Cancer Spheroids

High-Content Screening for Identifying miRNAs

High-Content Screening for Identifying miRNAs

Identification of Selective Inhibitors of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway

Identification of Selective Inhibitors of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway

Oliver Kepp and Jayne Hesley - Hallmarks of Cancer - Detect and Quantify Cell Death Signatures with High Content Imaging

Oliver Kepp and Jayne Hesley - Hallmarks of Cancer - Detect and Quantify Cell Death Signatures with High Content Imaging

Multidimensional High-Throughput Imaging with the New ImageXpress Micro Confocal System

Multidimensional High-Throughput Imaging with the New ImageXpress Micro Confocal System

Pushing the Boundaries of High Content Screening

Pushing the Boundaries of High Content Screening

Preparing Assays for Genome-wide RNAi Screens Using High Content Microscopy

Preparing Assays for Genome-wide RNAi Screens Using High Content Microscopy

Multiplexed High Content Hepatoxicity Assays Using iPSC-Derived Hepatocytes

Multiplexed High Content Hepatoxicity Assays Using iPSC-Derived Hepatocytes

High Content Imaging Analysis of Cell Sheet Morphogenesis Utilizing  𝘪𝘯 𝘷𝘪𝘵𝘳𝘰 Tissue Models

High Content Imaging Analysis of Cell Sheet Morphogenesis Utilizing 𝘪𝘯 𝘷𝘪𝘵𝘳𝘰 Tissue Models

Implement High-Throughput 3D Image Analysis for Samples from Subcellular Structures to Spheroids

Implement High-Throughput 3D Image Analysis for Samples from Subcellular Structures to Spheroids

Live Cell Imaging to Investigate the Regulation of Cell Division Timing

Live Cell Imaging to Investigate the Regulation of Cell Division Timing

Using High-throughput RNA Screening to Identify Host Factors That Impact Viral Infection

Using High-throughput RNA Screening to Identify Host Factors That Impact Viral Infection

Application of HCA Tools for Antibody Drug Discovery

Application of HCA Tools for Antibody Drug Discovery

Setting up 3D Spheroid Assays Using High-Content Imaging

Setting up 3D Spheroid Assays Using High-Content Imaging

Physiologically-Relevant Tissue Models Using a High-Throughput Organ-on-a-Chip Platform

Physiologically-Relevant Tissue Models Using a High-Throughput Organ-on-a-Chip Platform

Emerging Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Applications in Drug Discovery

Emerging Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Applications in Drug Discovery

StemoniX microBrain 3D Assay Ready Plates for HTS

StemoniX microBrain 3D Assay Ready Plates for HTS

  • Citation
    Dated: May 20, 2022
    Publication Name: Redox Balance and Autophagy

    Diclofenac: A Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Inducing Cancer Cell Death by Inhibiting Microtubule Polymerization and Autophagy Flux

    Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat inflammatory diseases induces cellular toxicity by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairing autophagic flux. In this study, we investigated whether diclofenac induces cancer cell death and the mechanism by which diclofenac causes cell death. We… View more

    Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat inflammatory diseases induces cellular toxicity by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairing autophagic flux. In this study, we investigated whether diclofenac induces cancer cell death and the mechanism by which diclofenac causes cell death. We observed that diclofenac induces mitotic arrest with a half-maximal effective concentration of 170 μM and cell death with a half-maximal lethal dose of 200 µM during 18-h incubation in HeLa cells. Cellular microtubule imaging and in vitro tubulin polymerization assays demonstrated that treatment with diclofenac elicits microtubule destabilization.

    Contributors: Soohee Choi, Suree Kim ORCID, Jiyoung Park ORCID, Seung Eun Lee, Chaewon Kim and Dongmin Kang *ORCID  
    Go to article

  • Citation
    Dated: Mar 28, 2022
    Publication Name: British Journal of Ophthalmology

    Succinic acid exacerbates experimental autoimmune uveitis by stimulating neutrophil extracellular traps formation via SUCNR1 receptor

    To investigate the effect of succinic acid on the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and the underlying mechanism. View more

    To investigate the effect of succinic acid on the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and the underlying mechanism.

    Contributors: Hongxi Li, Handan Tan, Zhangluxi Liu, Su Pan, Shiyao Tan, Yunyun Zhu, Qingfeng Wang, Guannan Su, Chunjiang Zhou, Qingfeng Cao, http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2647-6619 Peizeng Yang  
    Go to article

  • Citation
    Dated: Feb 07, 2022
    Publication Name: Pharmaceuticals

    The p97 Inhibitor UPCDC-30245 Blocks Endo-Lysosomal Degradation

    The diverse modes of action of small molecule inhibitors provide versatile tools to investigate basic biology and develop therapeutics. However, it remains a challenging task to evaluate their exact mechanisms of action. We identified two classes of inhibitors for the p97 ATPase: ATP competitive and allosteric. We showed that the allosteric p97… View more

    The diverse modes of action of small molecule inhibitors provide versatile tools to investigate basic biology and develop therapeutics. However, it remains a challenging task to evaluate their exact mechanisms of action. We identified two classes of inhibitors for the p97 ATPase: ATP competitive and allosteric. We showed that the allosteric p97 inhibitor, UPCDC-30245, does not affect two well-known cellular functions of p97, endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation and the unfolded protein response pathway; instead, it strongly increases the lipidated form of microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3-II), suggesting an alteration of autophagic pathways.

    Contributors: Feng Wang, Shan Li, Kai-Wen Cheng, William M. Rosencrans and Tsui-Fen Chou  
    Go to article

Expand your research using flexible, high-performance imaging solutions

Molecular Devices provides flexible options for the ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai system to meet your research needs and to easily capture images from different sample formats, including hanging drops and in round or flat bottom plates, for monitoring cell health kinetics under environmental control, and more. With over 30+ years of imaging expertise, we can help you select the right options to ensure the best images for your assay.

Standard hardware options

  • Asset 1 

    Water immersion objectives

    20X, 40X, and 60X water immersion objectives improve the geometric accuracy during acquisition and reduce light refraction for brighter intensity at lower exposure times.

     

  • Phrase Contrast 

    Transmitted light tower

    Our transmitted light tower enables acquisition of high contrast images for unstained cells which can be easily viewed or separated from background.

     

  • urnkey, high-throughput long term kinetics 

    Environmental Control

    Environmental control maintains temperature and humidity levels while minimizing evaporation for multi-day, live cell, time-lapse imaging.

     

Customization options

Molecular Devices can successfully tailor the ImageXpress Confocal HT.ai system to include customized software and hardware including the features described below, as well as integration of other lab components such as incubators, liquid handlers, and robotics for a fully automated workcell. With over 30 years of experience in the life science industry, you can count on us to deliver quality products and provide worldwide support.

Sale is subject to our Custom Product Purchase Terms available at www.moleculardevices.com/custom-products-purchase-terms

  • urnkey, high-throughput long term kinetics 

    Deep tissue penetrating confocal disk module

    The deep tissue penetrating, confocal disk module reduces crosstalk to improve out-of-focus light suppression and penetrate deeper into tissue.

     

  • urnkey, high-throughput long term kinetics 

    Turnkey, high-throughput long term kinetics

    Schedule and image multiple plates over long periods of time while keeping consistent temperature, O2 (Hypoxia), CO2, and humidity conditions. Expand live cell walk-away capacity to 200+ plates.

     

  • Robotic Automation 

    Scale up robotic automation

     

    Increase throughput, eliminate human errors, maintain sterility, and achieve consistent sample handling. Modular automation design—components can be added in modules and are upgradeable.

     

 

Deep tissue

Deep Tissue Penetrating, Confocal Disk Module

Specialized deep tissue penetrating, confocal disk module, combined with a laser light source, improves light penetrance for deeper tissue penetration, resulting in sharper images with improved resolution when imaging thick tissue samples†.

  • Improve suppression of out-of-focus light
  • Reduce haze (pinhole crosstalk)
  • Penetrate deeper into thick tissue samples for sharper images
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  • Learn more
Standard spinning disk
Standard Spinning Disc
Deep tissue penetrating, confocal disk module
Deep Tissue Penetrating with Confocal Disk

Images taken at the same exposure.

Data and images were acquired during development using customer samples. Results may vary. Highlighted features’ price, time to deliver, and specifications will vary based on mutually agreed technical requirements. Solution requirements may cause adjustment to standard performance