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Spinal metastases are common in cancer. This preferential migration/growth in the spine is not fully understood. Dura has been shown to affect the surrounding microenvironment and promote cancer growth. Here, we investigate the role of dural cytokines in promoting the metastatic potential of prostate cancer (PCa) and the involvement of the CXCR2 signaling pathway.
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Environmental xenoestrogens are the most accessible endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been reported with harmful effects on human health. Although the influences of xenoestrogens on the endocrine system have been extensively studied, it remains unclear whether these xenoestrogens can affect the digestive system in mammals. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects and the underlying mechanism of six non-steroidal synthetic estrogens (including hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol, bisphenol A, bisphenol AF and bisphenol Z) on pancreatic lipase (PL), a key digestive enzyme responsible for lipid digestion and absorption in mammals. The results clearly demonstrated that hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol and dienestrol exhibited strong inhibition on PL, with the IC50 values of less than 1.0 μM. Further investigations elucidated that these three synthetic estrogens functioned as mixed inhibitors of PL, with the Ki values of less than 1 μM. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulations showed that diethylstilbestrol and its analogues might block the binding of substrate on PL via occupying the portal to the active site of PL and thereby inhibit the hydrolytic activity of this key enzyme. Collectively, these results suggested that diethylstilbestrol and its analogues were potent PL inhibitors, which might play a profound role in lipid absorption and weight gain in mammals.
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Characterization of boscalid-induced oxidative stress and neurodevelopmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos
Boscalid is a widely used fungicide in agriculture and has been frequently detected in both environments and agricultural products. However, evidence on the neurotoxic effect of boscalid is scarce. In this study, zebrafish served as an animal model to investigate the toxic effects and mechanisms of boscalid on aquatic vertebrates or higher animals. And we unravelled that boscalid induced developmental defects associated with oxidative stress. Developmental defects, including head deformity, hypopigmentation, decreased number of newborn neurons, structural defects around the ventricle, enlarged intercellular space in the brain, and nuclear concentration, were observed in zebrafish embryos after boscalid exposure at 48 hpf. Interestingly, we found that boscalid might directly induce oxidative stress and alter the activity of ATPase, which in turn disrupted the expression of genes involved in neurodevelopment and transmitter-transmitting signalings and melanocyte differentiation and melanin synthesis signalings. Ultimately, the differentiation of nerve cells and melanocytes were both impacted and the synthesis of melanin was inhibited, leading to morphological abnormalities. Additionally, exposure to boscalid led to less and imbalance motion and altered tendency of locomotor in larval fish. Collectively, our results provide new evidences for a comprehensive assessment of its toxicity and a warning for its residues in environment and agricultural products.
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