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Patch-clamp amplifiers from single channels to large macroscopic recordings

The Axon Instruments® series of amplifiers provide best-in-class solutions for the entire range of patch-clamp experiments. The portfolio of amplifiers includes Axopatch™ 200B for ultra low-noise single-channel recordings, MultiClamp™ 700B for whole-cell voltage-clamp and high-speed current-clamp recordings, and Axoclamp™ 900A for two-electrode voltage-clamp and current-clamp recordings.

  • Minimize signal to noise ratio

    Minimize signal to noise ratio

    The Axopatch 200B Capacitor Feedback Patch Clamp Amplifier offers one of the lowest-noise single-channel recordings available via innovative capacitor-feedback technology.

  • Perform multi-channel experiments

    Perform multi-channel experiments

    The MultiClamp 700B Microelectrode Amplifier enables whole-cell voltage-clamp and current-clamp recordings. It is the most versatile amplifier in the portfolio.

  • Measure large currents

    Measure large currents

    Large output compliance range of our Axoclamp 900A Microelectrode Amplifier facilitates the measurement of large and rapid voltage-clamp and current-clamp recordings.

Features

  • Actively cooled headstage

    The Axopatch 200B amplifier features proprietary technology that provides active headstage cooling that reduces electrical noise close to the theoretical limits of physics.

  • Software control of settings

    The MultiClamp 700B and Axoclamp 900A amplifiers offer software control. Software control streamlines setup, and enables automation of parameters, telegraphing, and advanced protocols.

  • Support up to four headstages

    The MultiClamp 700B supports up to two primary CV-7B headstages and two optional auxiliary headstages (HS-2 or VG-2 type) enabling multi-channel recording for cellular network studies.

  • Large output compliance range

    The Axoclamp 900A amplifier supports the measurement of larger currents and ensures faster clamp speed (±180 V in TEVC and HVIC modes).

  • Multiple modes of operation

    The Axoclamp 900A amplifier offers 5 modes of operation: current clamp, discontinuous current clamp, two-electrode voltage clamp, discontinuous single-electrode voltage clamp, high-voltage current clamp.

  • Works with any data acquisition system

    The family of amplifiers integrates with most data acquisition programs. The pCLAMP™ 11 Software and DigiData® 1550B system for data acquisition and analysis provide optimal performance.

Which amplifier is right for me?

  Axopatch 200B Amplifier MultiClamp 700B Amplifier Axoclamp 900A Amplifier
Single-channel recording
   
 
 
Whole-cell voltage-clamp
   
   
 
Whole-cell current-clamp
 
   
   
Bilayer study
   
   
 
Extracellular field-potential recording
 
   
   
Amperometry/voltammetry study
  
   
 
Nanopore study
   
 
 
Intracellular sharp-electrode recording
 
   
   
Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording    
   

Applications of Axon Instruments Patch-Clamp Amplifiers

  • Current Clamp Amplifier

    Current Clamp Amplifier

    Current-clamp is a method used to measure the resulting membrane potential (voltage) from an injection of current. To measure the membrane potential, the MultiClamp 700B and Axoclamp 900A both monitor voltage drop initiated by current injection along an in-series resistor. Current-clamp is commonly used to inject simulated, but realistic current waveforms into a cell, and monitor membrane effect. This technique is ideal for the evaluation of important cellular events such as action potentials.

    Electrophysiology

    Electrophysiology: Patch Clamp

    Electrophysiology is the field of research studying current or voltage changes across a cell membrane. Electrophysiology techniques are widely used across a diverse range of neuroscience and physiological applications; from understanding the behavior of single ion channels in a cell membrane, to whole-cell changes in the membrane potential of a cell, to larger scale changes in field potential within the brain slices in vitro or brain regions in vivo.

    Read More  

  • Ion Channels

    Ion Channels

    An ion channel is a group of proteins that form a pore across the lipid bilayer of a cell. Each channel is permeable to a specific ion (examples: potassium, sodium, calcium, chloride). Patch-clamp is used to evaluate current or voltage in the membrane associated with ion channel activity via direct measurement in real time using ultra-sensitive amplifiers, high-quality data acquisition systems, and powerful software to evaluate the results.

    Patch Clamp

    Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology Techniques

    The patch-clamp technique involves a glass micropipette forming a tight gigaohm (GΩ) seal with the cell membrane. The micropipette contains a wire bathed in an electrolytic solution to conduct ions. The whole-cell technique involves rupturing a patch of membrane with mild suction to provide low-resistance electrical access, allowing control of transmembrane voltage. Alternatively, investigators can pull a patch of membrane away from the cell and evaluate currents through single channels via the inside-out or outside-out patch-clamp technique.

  • Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology

    Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology

    The Patch-clamping is a versatile electrophysiological tool for understanding ion channel behavior. Every cell expresses ion channels, but the most common cells to study with patch-clamp techniques include neurons, muscle fibers, cardiomyocytes, and oocytes overexpressing single ion channels. Learn about patch-clamp electrophysiology and ion channel basics here.

    Learn more  

    Series Resistance Compensation

    Series Resistance Compensation using Whole-Cell Recording Method

    Series resistance is the sum of all resistances between the amplifier and the inside of the cell using the whole-cell recording method. Due to Ohms Law, the larger this resistance, the greater the difference between the command level and the measured values. This creates an error in actual voltage or current measurement potentially leading to inaccurate observations. To overcome this, the Molecular Devices amplifiers have built-in circuitry to improve the bandwidth of the recording by compensating the error introduced by the voltage or current drop across the series resistance.

  • Single Channel Recording

    Patch-Clamp Single Channel Recording Technique

    The patch-clamp technique involves a glass micropipette forming a tight gigaohm seal with the cell membrane. The micropipette contains a wire bathed in an electrolytic solution to conduct ions. To measure single ion channels, a “patch” of membrane is pulled away from the cell after forming a gigaohm seal. If a single ion channel is within the patch, currents can be measured. The Axopatch 200B, with extremely low-noise profile, is ideal for this application, maximizing signal for the smallest conductance ion channels.

    Voltage Clamp Amplifier

    Voltage Clamp Amplifier

    In an experiment using the voltage-clamp method, the investigator controls the membrane voltage in a cell and measures the transmembrane current required to maintain that voltage. This voltage control is called a command voltage. To maintain this command voltage level, an amplifier must inject current. The current injected will be equal and opposite the current escaping through open ion channels, allowing the amplifier to measure the amount of current passing through open membrane bound ion channels.

  • Whole Cell Recording

    Whole Cell Recording Patch-Clamp Technique

    The whole cell patch-clamp technique involves a glass micropipette forming a tight gigaohm (GΩ) seal with the cell membrane. This micropipette contains a wire bathed in an electrolytic solution to conduct ions. A patch of membrane is subsequently ruptured by mild suction so that the glass micropipette provides a low-resistance access to the whole cell, thereby allowing the investigator to control the transmembrane voltage and allowing the investigator to evaluate the sum of all currents through membrane bound ion channels.

Specifications & Options of Axon Instruments Patch-Clamp Amplifiers

* Holding level, current passing, filter option, multiple signal outputs, pipette offset, fast and whole cell capacitance compensation, series compensation, pipette neutralization, bridge balance

Resources of Axon Instruments Patch-Clamp Amplifiers

Presentations
Videos & Webinars

A complete workflow solution for patch-clamp electrophysiology

For the latest featured videos, webinars and tutorials on our Axon instrument solution including Axon Patch-clamp Amplifiers, Digidata 1550B Digitizer plus HumSilencer, and pCLAMP Software Suite, visit our Axon Patch-Clamp Video Gallery.

Calculate Decay Time Constant, and Perform Curve Fitting Using Axon pCLAMP Software

How to Combine Traces, Calculate Rise or Decay Time Constant, and Perform Curve Fitting Using Axon pCLAMP Software

Using Electrophysiological Studies to Accelerate Mechanistic in Reception and Transmission

Using Electrophysiological Studies to Accelerate Mechanistic Study in Reception and Transmission

Hardware Choices for Optogenetics Considerations for Synchronized Light Patterning

Update and Hardware Choices for Optogenetics Considerations for Synchronized Light Patterning

Effects of Amyloid-Beta Proteins on hSlo1.1, a BK Channel, in Xenopus Oocyte Model

Investigations of the Effects of Amyloid-Beta Proteins on hSlo1.1, a BK Channel, in a Xenopus Oocyte Model

Nanopores-Electronic Tools for Single-Molecule Biophysics and Bio-Nanotechnologies

Nanopores-Electronic Tools for Single-Molecule Biophysics and Bio-Nanotechnologies

  • Citation
    Dated: Nov 30, 2020
    Publication Name: Biophysical Journal

    Microsecond Time-Scale Discrimination Among Polycytidylic Acid, Polyadenylic Acid, and Polyuridylic Acid as Homopolymers or as Segments Within Single RNA Molecules

    Single molecules of DNA or RNA can be detected as they are driven through an α-hemolysin channel by an applied electric field. During translocation, nucleotides within the polynucleotide must pass through the channel pore in sequential, single-file order because the limiting diameter of the pore can accommodate only one strand of DNA or RNA at a… View more

    Single molecules of DNA or RNA can be detected as they are driven through an α-hemolysin channel by an applied electric field. During translocation, nucleotides within the polynucleotide must pass through the channel pore in sequential, single-file order because the limiting diameter of the pore can accommodate only one strand of DNA or RNA at a time. Here we demonstrate that this nanopore behaves as a detector that can rapidly discriminate between pyrimidine and purine segments along an RNA molecule. Nanopore detection and characterization of single molecules represent a new method for directly reading information encoded in linear polymers, and are critical first steps toward direct sequencing of individual DNA and RNA molecules.

    Contributors: Mark Akeson, Daniel Branton, John J.Kasianowicz § EricBrandin, David W.Deamer  
    Go to article

  • Citation
    Dated: Mar 29, 2006
    Publication Name: Journal of Neuroscience

    Persistent Sodium Current in Layer 5 Neocortical Neurons Is Primarily Generated in the Proximal Axon

    In addition to the well described fast-inactivating component of the Na+ current [transient Na+ current (INaT)], neocortical neurons also exhibit a low-voltage-activated, slowly inactivating “persistent” Na+ current (INaP), which plays a role in determining neuronal excitability and synaptic integration. We investigated the Na+ channels… View more

    In addition to the well described fast-inactivating component of the Na+ current [transient Na+ current (INaT)], neocortical neurons also exhibit a low-voltage-activated, slowly inactivating “persistent” Na+ current (INaP), which plays a role in determining neuronal excitability and synaptic integration. We investigated the Na+ channels responsible for INaP in layer 5 pyramidal cells using cell-attached and whole-cell recordings in neocortical slices. In simultaneous cell-attached and whole-cell somatic recordings, no persistent Na+ channel activity was detected at potentials at which whole-cell INaP operates. Detailed kinetic analysis of late Na+ channel activity in cell-attached patches at 36°C revealed that somatic Na+ channels do not demonstrate “modal gating” behavior and that the probability of single late openings is extremely low (<1.4 × 10−4 or <0.02% of maximal open probability of INaT). Ensemble averages of these currents did not reveal a sustained component whose amplitude and voltage dependence could account for INaP as seen in whole-cell recordings.

    Contributors: Nadav Astman, Michael J. Gutnick and Ilya A. Fleidervish  
    Go to article

  • Citation
    Dated: Sep 15, 1996
    Publication Name: American Chemical Society

    Microelectrodes for the Measurement of Catecholamines in Biological Systems

    Many of the molecules involved in biological signaling processes are easily oxidized and have been monitored by electrochemical methods. Temporal response, spatial considerations, and sensitivity of the electrodes must be optimized for the specific biological application. To monitor exocytosis from single cells in culture, constant potential… View more

    Many of the molecules involved in biological signaling processes are easily oxidized and have been monitored by electrochemical methods. Temporal response, spatial considerations, and sensitivity of the electrodes must be optimized for the specific biological application. To monitor exocytosis from single cells in culture, constant potential amperometry offers the best temporal resolution, and a low-noise picoammeter improves the detection limits. Smaller electrodes, with 1-μm diameters, provided spatial resolution sufficient to identify the locations of release sites on the surface of single cells. For the study of neurotransmitter release in vivo, larger cylindrical microelectrodes are advantageous because the secreted molecules come from multiple terminals near the electrode, and the greater amounts lead to a larger signal that emerges from the Johnson noise of the current amplifier. With this approach, dopamine release elicited by two electrical stimulus pulses at 10 Hz was detected with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in vivo. Nafion-coated elliptical electrodes have previously been shown to be incapable of detecting such concentration changes without extensive signal averaging. In addition, we demonstrate that high-pass filtering (200 Hz) of cyclic voltammograms recorded at 300 V/s decreases the background current and digitization noise at these microelectrodes, leading to an improved signal. Also, high-pass filtering discriminated against ascorbic acid, DOPAC, and acidic pH changes, three common interferences in vivo.

    Contributors: Paula S. Cahill, Q. David Walker, Jennifer M. Finnegan, George E. Mickelson, Eric R. Travis, and R. Mark Wightman  
    Go to article

Axon Instruments Patch-Clamp Amplifiers

Headstages

Description Details Part Number
Axoclamp 900A Headstage HS-9A X0.1U x0.1 headstage 1-2950-0359
Axoclamp 900A Headstage HS-9A X1U x1 headstage 1-2950-0360
Axoclamp 900A Headstage HS-9A X10U x10 headstage 1-2950-0361
Axoclamp 900A Headstage VG-9A X10U x10 virtual ground headstage 1-2950-0362
Axoclamp 900A Headstage VG-9A X100U x100 virtual ground headstage 1-2950-0363
MultiClamp 700B Headstage CV-7B Patch-clamp headstage 1-CV-7B
MultiClamp 700B Headstage CV-7B/BL Bilayer headstage 1-CV-7B/BL
MultiClamp 700B Headstage CV-7B/EC Electrochemistry headstage 1-CV-7B/EC

Electrode holders, adapters, and holder components

Description Details Part Number
Electrode Holder for U-Type Headstages Fits glass pipettes with outer diameter of 1.0 - 1.7 mm 1-HL-U
Electrode Holder Replacement Caps Set of 2 polycarbonate caps for HL-U holders 1-HL-CAP
Cone Washers 1.1mm ID Set of 10 orange cone washers for HL-U holders, fit glass with outer diameter of 1.0 - 1.1 mm 1-HLC-11
Cone Washers 1.3mm ID Set of 10 orange cone washers for HL-U holders, fit glass with outer diameter of 1.1 - 1.3 mm 1-HLC-13
Cone Washers 1.5mm ID Set of 10 orange cone washers for HL-U holders, fit glass with outer diameter of 1.3 - 1.5 mm 1-HLC-15
Cone Washers 1.7mm ID Set of 10 orange cone washers for HL-U holders, fit glass with outer diameter of 1.5 - 1.7 mm 1-HLC-17
Pins 1mm for HL-U Holders Set of 3 brass pins for HL-U holders, 1mm 1-HLP-U
2mm Plugs with Solder Cups Set of 5 general purpose gold plugs, 2mm, with solder cups 1-HLP-0
Silver Wire Set of 5 Ag wires, 0.25mm diameter, 50mm long 1-HLA-005
Silicone Tubing for Silver Wire 1mm ID x 70mm Long Silicone Tubing 1-HLT-70
Silver/Silver Chloride Pellet Assemblies Set of 3 Ag/AgCl pellet assemblies 1-HLA-003
Adapter For BNC Holders To U-Type Headstages Connects BNC holders to CV and HS headstages with threaded collets (U-type) 1-HLB-U
Right-Angle Adapter for HL-U Electrode Holders Fits CV and HS headstages with threaded collets (U-type) 1-HLR-U

Model Cells

Description Details Part Number
Model Cell for Oocytes Axoclamp/ GeneClamp model cell for oocytes. Connects to U-type HS series headstages 1-MCO-2U
Model Cell for TEVC / DSEVC Axoclamp/ GeneClamp model cell for two-electrode voltage clamp/ discontinuous single-electrode voltage-clamp conditions. Connects to U-type HS series headstages 1-CLAMP-1U
Model Cell for Whole Cell/ Single Channels Axopatch/ GeneClamp/ MultiClamp model cell for whole-cell / single-channel patch-clamp conditions. Connects to U-type CV series headstages 1-PATCH-1U
Model Cell for Bilayers Axopatch/ GeneClamp/ MultiClamp model cell for bilayer conditions. Connects to U-type CV series headstages 1-MCB-1U

Cables

Description Details Part Number
Cable To Connect Axoclamp 2 Headstages To Axoclamp 900A Amplifier Allows Axoclamp 2 headstages (HS-2, VG-2) to be used on Axoclamp 900A Amplifiers 1-2100-0934

Miscellaneous

Description Details Part Number
SoftPanel Amplifier Control Unit Provides physical knob and button control for computer-controlled Axoclamp 900-series and MultiClamp 700-series amplifiers. Requires a USB connection. 1-SOFTPANEL (USB)
Remote Buzz For Axoclamp 900A Hand-held buzz duration control for Axoclamp 900A Amplifier (1-50ms) 1-2950-0366
Silver/Silver Chloride Pellet Assemblies Set of 3 Ag/AgCl pellet assembly and Ag wire 1-HLA-003

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